URL encoding is a process of converting special characters, reserved characters, and non-alphanumeric characters in a URL into their percent-encoded representations. It ensures that URLs are correctly formatted and can be transmitted and interpreted correctly by web browsers and servers.
URL encoding is necessary to avoid issues with special characters that have reserved meanings in URLs. By encoding data, such as query parameters or path segments, you ensure that it is transmitted accurately and can be properly interpreted by the receiving server.
Characters that have special meanings in URLs, such as spaces, ampersands, question marks, and non-alphanumeric characters, need to be URL encoded. Additionally, reserved characters like slashes, colons, and dots also require encoding to prevent misinterpretation of the URL structure.